主题聊聊阿尔卑斯式登山
 作者豌豆
 时间2014年06月08日 21:19:46
  

 

前段时间大家聊起什么叫“阿式攀登”,说国内没有一个正式的概念。我以为这个概念很清楚,可有朋友总不是太满意。那么百度一下,有下面两个词条:

***阿尔卑斯式攀登:http://baike.baidu.com/view/751308.htm?fr=aladdin
***阿尔卑斯式登山:http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=qEuftEx4U5D3TcWP8ZhLoNR9RFYTwTNvSG0xMbzWXdA1dUOpjcKWfgvFyhBspdKu

第一个词条的概述里面说:阿尔卑斯式攀登并没有严格的定义,但它通常是指在高山的环境之下,以个人或两三人的小队来爬山,以轻便的装备,快速的行进速度前进。在中途不靠外界的补给;也不需要架设固定绳索以方便反复地上升下降来适应高度与补给物资,一鼓作气爬上山顶并且平安回来,若是不能登顶就拆返。

***维基百科词条:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpine_style

Alpine style refers to mountaineering in a self-sufficient manner, thereby carrying all of one's food, shelter, equipment, etc. as one climbs, as opposed to expedition style (or siege style) mountaineering which involves setting up a fixed line of stocked camps on the mountain which can be accessed at one's leisure. Additionally, alpine style means the refusal of fixed ropes, high-altitude porters and the use of supplemental oxygen.

Rise to popularity
Many consider Alpine style to be the purest form of mountaineering, setting a standard to which all mountaineers should aspire. This style became well-known and popular with Reinhold Messner, when he and Peter Habeler climbed Gasherbrum I without oxygen equipment in 1975. It was Hermann Buhl's idea to demonstrate Alpine style in the Karakoram at the successful Austrian Broad Peak expedition in 1957; in pure Alpine style the members of this expedition later climbed Skil Brum (Marcus Schmuck and Fritz Wintersteller) and approached Chogolisa (Hermann Buhl and Kurt Diemberger).

Benefits
The benefits of alpine style include spending much less time on the route, thereby reducing objective dangers such as avalanches or blizzards. This can be a major factor on routes with ice fields full of blocks of ice hundreds of feet tall which could fall at any time. Snow and ice conditions often change over the course of a day forcing climbing parties to climb in the early hours before the sun melts the snow or ice making it unsuitable and more susceptible to avalanche. This tendency to climb in the morning has led to the term "Alpine Start". An "Alpine Start" is an early start that ranges from starting at 11:00pm of the night before on long routes, to not long before sunrise for shorter routes or faster parties. An "Alpine Start" must begin in the dark.

Problems
The problems encountered while alpine style climbing are related to lack of support and potentially the lack of acclimatization associated with spending less time at high altitudes. Without fixed ropes to retreat down in case of emergency, or a lower camp to return to, the commitment of alpine style is greater than expedition style in terms of the choice to ascend or descend. A climbing group caught at a point where conditions do not allow further ascent must consider other options such as an unplanned bivouac (perhaps without the appropriate gear), rappels (leaving multiple pieces of protection behind), or moving to another route from their current position (perhaps without adequate knowledge of the alternative route). However, alpine style often is cheaper and faster for those on a budget, as alpine style climbing typically involves less equipment, and eliminates the need to hire porters.

满足想看原文的朋友,没有翻译。

***另外手里有Mick Fowler解释自己的攀登的英文:‘Alpine Style’ does vary in purity and I should clarify that my brand of Alpine Style has always involved a small self contained team climbing with no support of any kind above the bergschrund. Everything that is required for the climb is carried in the rucksacks of the climbers and every climber physically climbs every pitch. Fixed ropes are not used and bolts are never carried.
简单翻译一下:。“阿尔卑斯方式”在纯度上也有所不同,我应该澄清一下,我所采用的方式只包含自我支持的小团队而没有任何雪线之上的额外补给。攀登的各个方面,从装备的携带到每个绳距的完成,都亲历亲为。我从来不使用固定路绳,也从来没用过膨胀螺栓。

福勒的方式强调了(在大本营以上)背负所有自己的物资,并且亲自完成每个绳距,不用固定路绳,不用膨胀螺栓。因为福勒本人只考虑技术攀登路线,且放弃了八千米山峰的尝试,所以对他来说没有氧气的问题。一般我看到乌里.斯特克(Ueli Steck)、丹尼斯.尤布克(Denis Urubko)、西蒙.莫洛(Simone Moro)等人攀登八千米也是不使用氧气的。

仅仅给出一些查找的资料,供参考。欢迎讨论。

这个贴子最后由 豌豆 2014年06月08日 21:27:29 编辑

 


商业登山:乱象早注定——从直升机上珠峰说起[14.9k]
十一郎 14-06-05 11:41:12
登山就像谈恋爱[435]
十一郎 14-06-08 11:49:39
烂根了[7]
dtxzdtxz 14-06-08 21:52:03
抱歉,本版黑名单1年。[134]
jjyfoot 14-06-14 02:22:50
这个比喻太贬低攀登了[122]
久点 14-06-23 10:03:10
聊聊阿尔卑斯式登山[5k]
豌豆 14-06-08 21:19:46
赞![15]
十一郎 14-06-09 14:01:59
Fowler不是说的雪线以上或大本营以上不用帮助,是背隙(bergschrund)以上[407]
mh 14-06-12 14:12:30
好的,谢谢解释,确实不知道bergschrund怎么翻译更贴切[502]
豌豆 14-06-12 14:58:41
登山圣经上的译法是:背窿隙。[0]
jjyfoot 14-06-14 14:08:37
登山圣经用的是台湾人的翻译,难以在大陆推广。暂时还是没能一个普遍认可、很简练的中文名字[0]
豌豆 14-06-16 12:46:32
“背隙”好像是北大山鹰社一帮学地质的人开始用的[155]
mh 14-06-16 17:07:39
边隙[12]
janeclimber 14-06-27 22:26:09
说理清楚[54]
向山 14-06-09 22:07:29
同意文中大部分观点[464]
山北Ada 14-06-10 09:31:27
我觉得 只有一小部分人清楚就行了[205]
duke5d 14-06-16 08:00:33
赞赏十一郎叙述的纯粹的登山精神,但觉得商业登山也无可指责,不过搞欺诈就不对了。这件事觉得最可能还是竞争对手的商业炒作。[257]
^^陶陶^^ 14-06-20 15:01:40
这件事最大的意义恐怕不在登山,因为本来就是一个商业登山者,最大的影响在于一个彻底失败的商业炒作和对手商业炒作的巨大成功。[0]
^^陶陶^^ 14-06-20 15:05:49